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Sacral fractures: An updated and comprehensive review

Sacral fractures are often underdiagnosed but are relatively frequent in the setting of pelvic ring injury.Causes include traumatic insults and osteoporosis. Sacral fractures have become more frequent owingto the growth of the elderly population worldwide as osteoporosis is an age-related disease. Misdiagnosed and neglected sacral fractures can result in chronic back pain, spine deformity, and instability. Unfortunately, the wide range of classification systems hinders adequate communication among clinicians.Therefore, a complete understanding of the pathology, and communication within the interdisciplinaryteam, are necessary to ensure adequate treatment and satisfactory clinical outcomes. The aim of thismanuscript is to present the current knowledge available regarding classification systems, clinical assessment, decision-making factors, and current treatment options. (DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2020.11.015)

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