Background: Scalp arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are a rare vascular disease usuallypresenting as a progressively increasing pulsating mass in the scalp. These lesions canbe associated with mild to severe complications, including congestive heart failure. Ifruptures, this pathology constitutes a life-threatening medical emergency because ofits potential to cause severe bleeding and acute anemia.
Methods: We describe the case of a young woman with a ruptured Yokouchi type Cscalp AVF with eyelid involvement.
Results: The patient presented with hypovolemic shock and acute anemia due to severebleeding from the lesion. Emergent treatment through a combined endovascular and opensurgical approach was required to stop bleeding and stabilize the patient.
Conclusions: Emergent and effective treatment is required to stop bleeding when ascalp AVF ruptures. A combination of endovascular embolization and microsurgicalexcision of the shunt is a treatment option.